Egypt

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At A Glance

Indices and Rankings
Gender Gap Ranking1 #125/134
Gender Inequality Index2 0.714
HDI Ranking3 #101
Political Participation
Women parliamentarians lower/upper houses 13%/--
Women in Parliament ranking #90/133
Women at ministerial level (ranking) 9% (#69/133)
Year women received right to vote/be elected 1956/1956

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Overview
GovernmentRepublic
Total population82.1 million
GDP per capita (PPP) $6,200
HDI ranking3#101
Population under age 1533%
Urban population43%
Internet users21%
LanguagesArabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Indices Education & Employment Political Participation
Sources (March 2011): CIA World Factbook, Inter-Parliamentary Union, Internet World Stats, MDG Info 2010, Quota Project, UNESCO Institute for Statistics, UNICEF ChildInfo , UNICEF State of the World's Children 2011, United Nations Development Project Human Development Reports, World Economic Forum, World Health Organization Global Health Observatory Database. 1.The World Economic Forum's Gender Gap index assesses how well countries divide resources and opportunities amongs male and female populations in four areas: economic participation and opportunity (salaries, participation levels and access to high-skilled employment), educational attainment (access to basic and higher level education), health and survival (life expectancy and sex ratio), and political empowerment (representation in decision-making structures). 2. The UNDP's Gender Inequality Index is designed to reveal the extent to which national human development achievements are eroded by gender inequality. It is a composite measure reflecting inequality in achievements between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health (maternal mortality ratio and adolescent fertility rate), empowerment (share of parliamentary seats, and secondary and higher education attainment levels) and the labour market (women's participation in the work force). It varies between zero (when women and men fare equally) and one (when men or women fare poorly compared to the other in all dimensions). 3. The UNDP's Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary composite index that measures a country's average achievements in three basic aspects of human development: health, knowledge, and income. It was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone. 4. Vulnerable employment is a Millenium Development Goal (MDG) 1B indicator; vulnerable employments are lower productivity and informal activities such as own-account workers and unpaid family workers. They are therefore more likely to lack benefi ts associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and recourse to effective mechanisms for social dialogue. Vulnerable employment is often characterized by inadequate earnings, low productivity and substandard working conditions that undermine fundamental labour rights.
Gender Gap Ranking1 #125/134 Adult literacy rate, females as a % of males 96% Women parliamentarians lower/upper houses 13%/--
Gender Inequality Index2 0.714 Population with secondary education, female/male ratio 105% Women in Parliament ranking #90/133
Vulnerable employment for women (men)4 43.5%(20%) Women at ministerial level (ranking) 9% (#69/133)
Year women received right to vote/be elected 1956/1956
HealthQuotas
Lifetime risk in maternal death, 1 in 380 Quota type Reserved seats
Births per woman 2.9 Constitutional quota in lower house No
Births per 1000 women aged 15-19 39 Electoral quota in lower house Yes
Voluntary political party quotas No

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Our Partner

Forum for Women in Development (FWID) is a network of Egyptian NGOs dealing with women's issues, launched in 1997 by 15 civil society organizations. FWID is made up of groups of activists, both male and female, from different social and professional backgrounds. They work together for women's emancipation and the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women in order to contribute to building a democratic, just, and egalitarian society. FWID advocates for the reform of policies and legislation that discriminate against woman.

Reports & Updates
November 4, 2011 | 2011 Events, arab spring, Bahrain, Egypt, Family Law Reform, Human Rights, Iran, Jordan, Leading to Action, MENA, Middle East, Morocco, Rights & Reservations: Realizing CEDAW, senate, ICT for Social Change, Political Participation
The following is WLP President Mahnaz Afkhami's written testimony for the hearing on Women and the Arab Spring to the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on International Operation and Organizations, Human Rights, Democracy, and Global Women’s Issues and Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South Central Asia Affairs. Thank you for the opportunity to submit this testimony on the state of women’s rights in the Middle East and North Africa during this critical time of transition. 
October 4, 2011 | 2012 Events, Americas, Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Leading to Action, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mauritania, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palestine, Turkey, Zimbabwe, Political Participation
In October, WLP traveled to Lima, Peru for the World Movement for Democracy (WMD) seventh Global Assembly, Democracy for All: Ensuring Political, Social, and Economic Inclusion. The conference brought together WLP Partners and more than 500 democracy activists, practitioners, and scholars, providing an important opportunity for learning, exchange, and networking with civil society actors from across the world.
May 13, 2011 | Claiming Equal Citizenship, Egypt, Human Rights, Lebanon, Middle East, nationality, nationality campaign, Guide to Equality
  After tireless efforts, women's rights activists have reached another milestone with Egyptian women married to Palestinian men gaining the right to pass their nationality to their children. WLP is pleased to share the following statement on behalf of the Arab Women's Right to Nationality Campaign in Lebanon, part of WLP's regional Claiming Equal Citizenship campaign.
March 3, 2011 | Egypt, unrest
A quick look at gender equality in Egypt in the context of uprisings and unrest in the country and the region
September 15, 2009 | Claiming Equal Citizenship, Egypt, Human Rights
Almost a million children born before the nationality law amendment in 2004 are disadvantaged because the law does not grant them the right to automatic naturalization. Children of Palestinian and Sudanese fathers are targets of specific discrimination.
March 14, 2008 | Claiming Equal Citizenship, Egypt
Egypt’s new Nationality Law No. 154 of 2004 states that whoever is born of an Egyptian mother is Egyptian. This law has applied to all Egyptian women married to non-Egyptian men except the Egyptian women who marry Palestinians.
October 3, 2007 | 2007 Events, Egypt, eNews 18, Lebanon, Palestine, ICT for Social Change, Leading To Choices, Leadership
The eCourse focuses on five themes from WLP’s seminal work, Leading to Choices: A Leadership Training Handbook for Women: developing participatory and personal leadership skills; communicating persuasively; creating a shared vision; and mobilizing resources. Over the ten-week period, participants will complete reading and writing assignments and participate in online discussions and group activities.
September 20, 2006 | Claiming Equal Citizenship, Egypt, Human Rights
In 2004, Egypt granted children of Egyptian women married to non-nationals the right to citizenship, given that they meet certain requirements. Women’s groups mobilized and specifically focused on reforming Articles 2 and 3 of the Nationality Law of 1975.

Profile

Afaf Mahfouz

Consultant /
Nationality:  Egypt
Profession:  Activist, Psychotherapist
Languages Spoken:  Arabic, English
Area(s) of Expertise:  Health & Population, International Development, Women's Human Rights
Country/Region of Expertise:  Egypt, Middle East, North Africa

Afaf Mahfouz is former President of the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations (CONGO). At the United Nations headquarters in New York, Dr. Mahfouz coordinated the work of 17 NGO committees providing fora for discussion on matters such as the status of women, human rights, sustainable development, and disarmament.

S:SSO to Sakai