Nicaragua

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At A Glance

Indices and Rankings
Gender Gap Ranking1 #30
Gender Inequality Index2 0.674
HDI Ranking3 #115
Political Participation
Women parliamentarians lower/upper houses 21%/--
Women in Parliament ranking #58/133
Women at ministerial level (ranking) 38.5% (#10/133)
Year women received right to vote/be elected 1955/1955

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Overview
GovernmentRepublic
Total population5.7 million
GDP per capita (PPP) $2,900
HDI ranking3#115
Population under age 15%32
Urban population57%
Internet users10%
LanguagesSpanish 97.5% (official), Miskito, others

Indices Education & Employment Political Participation
Sources (March 2011): CIA World Factbook, Inter-Parliamentary Union, Internet World Stats, MDG Info 2010, Quota Project, UNESCO Institute for Statistics, UNICEF ChildInfo , UNICEF State of the World's Children 2011, United Nations Development Project Human Development Reports, World Economic Forum, World Health Organization Global Health Observatory Database. 1.The World Economic Forum's Gender Gap index assesses how well countries divide resources and opportunities amongs male and female populations in four areas: economic participation and opportunity (salaries, participation levels and access to high-skilled employment), educational attainment (access to basic and higher level education), health and survival (life expectancy and sex ratio), and political empowerment (representation in decision-making structures). 2. The UNDP's Gender Inequality Index is designed to reveal the extent to which national human development achievements are eroded by gender inequality. It is a composite measure reflecting inequality in achievements between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health (maternal mortality ratio and adolescent fertility rate), empowerment (share of parliamentary seats, and secondary and higher education attainment levels) and the labour market (women's participation in the work force). It varies between zero (when women and men fare equally) and one (when men or women fare poorly compared to the other in all dimensions). 3. The UNDP's Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary composite index that measures a country's average achievements in three basic aspects of human development: health, knowledge, and income. It was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone. 4. Vulnerable employment is a Millenium Development Goal (MDG) 1B indicator; vulnerable employments are lower productivity and informal activities such as own-account workers and unpaid family workers. They are therefore more likely to lack benefi ts associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and recourse to effective mechanisms for social dialogue. Vulnerable employment is often characterized by inadequate earnings, low productivity and substandard working conditions that undermine fundamental labour rights.
Gender Gap Ranking1 #30 Adult literacy rate, females as a % of males 100% Women parliamentarians lower/upper houses 21%/--
Gender Inequality Index2 0.674 Population with secondary education, female/male ratio 69% Women in Parliament ranking #58/133
Vulnerable employment for women (men)4 45.5% (45%) Women at ministerial level (ranking) 38.5% (#10/133)
Year women received right to vote/be elected 1955/1955
HealthQuotas
Lifetime risk in maternal death, 1 in 300 Quota type No legislated quota
Births per woman 2.7 Constitutional quota in lower house No
Births per 1000 women aged 15-19 113 Electoral quota in lower house No
Voluntary political party quotas Yes

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Our Partner

Fondo de Desarrollo para la Mujer (Fodem) is working to lay the foundation for women's economic security and political empowerment through credit, organization, education, and technical assistance. Read More >

Reports & Updates
November 17, 2010 | Americas, Human Rights, Nicaragua, Rights & Reservations: Realizing CEDAW
The United States could be an historical leader in defending human rights around the world. Now, after 31 years of CEDAW’s existence, the U.S has an opportunity to lead the way to equality, accompanied by numerous international activists, who have fought endlessly to create a world, equal for everyone. The advances we have seen in the matter of human rights for Woman are impressive, but they are not fast enough. The U.S ratification of CEDAW will represent a milestone and will encourage the promotion and protection of human rights for all.
October 22, 2008 | Human Rights Alerts, Nicaragua
WLP colleagues from the Autonomous Women’s Movement (MAM) in Nicaragua have called our attention to the government’s raid and seizure of documents and computers from their offices on October 10th. The raid of MAM’s offices as well as the Centre for Investigation and Communication (CINCO) offices are another step of President Daniel Ortega’s government's campaign against civil society organizations, particularly feminists, who have been outspoken critics of his government.
March 18, 2008 | 2008 Events, Kyrgyzstan, Mauritania, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palestine, Political Participation
The 21st century is the century for women and politics. Six extraordinary grassroots leaders from four regions of the world discuss practical strategies and culture friendly initiatives that they have used to mobilize women, and especially young women, to participate in making decisions that affect their lives and the lives of their communities.
February 26, 2008 | 2008 Events, Brazil, Morocco, Nicaragua, Leadership, Leading To Choices Multimedia, eNews 19
The Institute brought together twenty-four participants from seven countries in the region: Brazil, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and El Salvador. The participants, all of whom were experienced trainers and activists, welcomed the leadership concepts and methodologies offered in the manual, as well as the application of the leadership concept and methodology to diverse fields, including economic justice, women’s health and reproductive rights, violence against women, indigenous rights, human rights, youth advocacy, and microfinance.
December 5, 2007 | eNews 18, Nicaragua
Nicaragua is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. Nearly 80% of its population lives on less than two dollars a day. Women’s economic participation and contribution to the household income has increased in the last decades mainly because of wars, urbanization, internal and external migration, demand for women’s labor in the maquilas, crisis in the formal economic sector, and women’s increased capacity to generate income in the informal sector. Women head 30% of homes in rural areas and 44% of homes in urban areas. These households are more economically vulnerable and the majority of them are poor, with only a single income to cover basic needs.

Profile

Malena de Montis

Founder & Member of the Board / Center for Democratic Participation and Development (Cenzontle)
Nationality:  Nicaragua
Profession:  Activist
Languages Spoken:  English, Spanish
Area(s) of Expertise:  Advocacy, Gender and Development
Country/Region of Expertise:  Latin America & Caribbean, Nicaragua

Malena de Montis is a Nicaraguan feminist with a doctoral degree in Education from the University of Massachusetts. She is the founder of the Center for Democratic Participation and Development (Cenzontle) and the Women's Development Fund (FODEM/Cenzontle), both non-governmental organizations that seek to support the economic and political empowerment of women with scarce resources through financial, business, and citizenship components that have earned the Central American award for Best Practice from INTERCAMBIO.

S:SSO to Sakai